Poppies belong to the family of Papaveraceae plants which has 42 genera and over 775 species of Poppies. A few characteristics that all Poppies have in common are the delicate, silk-like petals that are amazingly durable, complete flowers that are mainly self-pollinated but still attract bees, the ability to grow in extremely poor soil, and a milky white sap that comes out of all parts of the plant. The colors and flower size is variable, and many cultivars have been developed for ornamental garden use.
Poppies prefer cooler temperatures and bloom profusely in the late spring to early summer. There are perennial and annual species that will grow in just about every hardiness zone of the United States. Annual types are very good at self-seeding new plants every year, making them appear to be perennial. Perennial varieties can be short lived and may self-seed also.
Poppies appreciate a spot that has full sun (up to all day if possible) and any kind of soil that drains well and isn’t too rich. Container-grown Poppies can be planted any time during the year, although the best time is early in the spring when the weather is cool. Even in the colder hardiness zones, Poppy seeds grow best when sown in the fall, so that they can have a period of stratification to encourage germination in the early spring. Spring-sown seed may result in later flowering or smaller plants.
The beautiful flowers of Poppies thrive on neglect and can become sulky if given too much attention. Overwatering is more of a risk than underwatering. Container-grown Poppies will need consistent moisture until new growth emerges. Seeded Poppies will need regular watering until the plants are producing true sets of leaves. Supplemental watering is only needed once a week or less during dry periods. Watering early in the spring may not be necessary if more than ½ inch of rain falls during the week. Container-grown Poppies will need a period of drying out between waterings.
Both perennial and annual Poppies need little supplemental fertilizing. In fact, fertilizing will encourage excessive foliage growth, not more flowers. Mulching with organic compost or shredded leaves will increase moisture levels in the soil and enhance the texture and fertility over time. The nutrients in compost are released slowly over the course of a growing season and will help to establish a strong root system.
The blooms of Poppies are generally short lived. Some varieties only last a day before dropping their petals. Quickly after the flower dies, Poppies will put energy into setting seed. Regular deadheading will help to keep Poppies putting energy into more blooms. Any other pruning is not necessary. Poppies will die back completely to the ground once they have set and dispersed seed and/or the weather turns too hot for them. Typically by fall, there is no plant material to clean up from spent plants.
Caring For Poppies in Pots
Poppies are easy to grow in pots as long as the drainage is excellent and the container is large enough to house the full-grown plant. Poppies do not like to be transplanted and are best planted once and then left alone. All purpose potting soil that does not have added fertilizers will provide enough support for good blooming and rooting.
Poppies will need to dry out in between waterings and need only one supplemental fertilizing with a diluted liquid seaweed or fish emulsion early in the spring. Smaller, compact California Poppies are great filler plants for mixed containers. The taller and larger flowered Oriental Poppies make lovely thriller or focal point plants.
Winter Care for Poppies
Poppies require minimal care during the winter. Perennial varieties die back completely to the ground well before the fall and their root systems are dormant all winter. Self-seeded, annual types will set seed and sow in the fall so that the cold of winter will prepare the seeds for vigorous growth in the spring. Poppies in containers should be moved to a slightly sheltered spot that will not receive excess rain. Pots should continue to have excellent drainage through the winter.
Common Questions About Poppies
How Much Space Do Poppies Need?
Depending on the varieties, poppies will need between 6 and 12 inches between them to allow for them to reach their growth potential and allow for sufficient air circulation to avoid powdery mildew.
How Long Do Poppy Flowers Last?
Each poppy flower can last up to 2 weeks, but they'll bloom continuously so you may not even notice!
Do Poppies Like Full Sun?
Almost all varieties of poppies do best with at least 6 hours of sunlight daily, though there are varieties that will do well in shaded areas. Without the full sun, flowers may fail to fully open and shine.
Are Poppies Invasive?
Poppies can be invasive in southern states where seeds are easily able to ripen though in northern locations, they are considered more aggressive than invasive. Deadheading can help to prevent self-seeding.
Are Poppies An Annual Or Perennial?
While they are most often grown as annuals, they are short-lived perennials. Seeds that are allowed to ripen and scatter in the fall, provide new plants.
Why Are Poppy Leaves Turning Yellow, Brown, and/or Black?
Not enough water will cause poppy leaves to wilt, turn yellow or brown and fall to the ground. Occasionally watering them slowly and deeply is better for them, than frequent light watering. Poppies that are turning brown may also be infected with botrytis blight and removing and disposing of any infected parts of the plant, along with the mulch around the poppy is recommended.
What Is The Growth Rate Of Poppies?
Though growth rate is affected by several factors, available sunlight, soil quality, water availability, etc. poppies are generally considered to be fast growers.
Are Poppies Drought Tolerant?
Poppies are, once established, drought tolerant and in many regions do not require any water other than the naturally occurring moisture.
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Author Robbin Small - Published 7-22-2022